My first visit to Africa – part 3

My visit to Somalia happened at a time, when the country was entering one of its most challenging but also most promising periods. During the six days I spent there, I learned what was at stake for the people of Somalia. 

Renewed hope for Mogadishu
Aunt Sacdiya is the youngest out of my late father’s ten siblings. Her physical resemblance to my father was striking. Her fresh-faced son Mohamed was dressed in a Real Madrid t-shirt and jeans, and I undeniably felt a strong bond with both of them.

One day after the first visit, Mohamed came back to accompany me to our late grandfather’s property in uptown Mogadishu. Sacdiya and her five children moved to district Waberi roughly one year ago after having spent five years in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.

The family ventured back to Somalia upon hearing about the restored order and peace in Mogadishu, after AMISOM and government troops successfully had driven al-Shabaab out of their strongholds in the capital.

Back on my grandfather’s rooftop
Waberi’s roads were paved and packed with new cars. Here, you would find banks, computer schools and restaurants with out-door-serving. The cost of rent in this part of town had skyrocketed in the past year, which allowed Sacdiya to earn money on renting out one of the rooms in the property to a private company.

One of my childhood memories is of visiting my grandfather at his house, where we would sit up on the rooftop as the dark set in. I hoped to recognize something, but nothing looked familiar. Nevertheless, I could not help, but feel a great sense of belonging to the place.

I discovered, that my other aunt, Hawa, lived nearby – the eldest of the bunch. I visited her multicolored, tidy and posh house, where both her children and grandchildren lived. All of my aunts’ children went to private schools, so I could tell that they were better off than my relatives in Shibis, who begged me to take their eldest daughter with me to Europe, so she could get an education.

Fear of arrests and kidnapping
My uncle Osman stated that now was not the time to be in Mogadishu. He would like nothing more than to show me the whole of the city, but he was afraid of robbers, policemen and soldiers.

Now, my aunts and their children confirmed the state of lawlessness in Mogadishu. They told me about random arrests and persecution of young men, whose only crime was to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. Still my cousins and I were able to walk down Makkah al Mukaramah (the main road to the airport) after dark sipping on guava juice.

Both Mohamed and his brother had been arrested by the local police, and released only after the family had paid a large sum of money. Without the payment, their lives would have been at risk. Six months ago, Mohamed’s 14-year-old brother was allegedly kidnapped by al-Shabaab. The family has not heard or seen anything from him in six months. They believe that he is now a child soldier.

The relentless targeting of terrorists and non-Muslims
The police arrests those, who they suspect are affiliated with al-Shabaab and therefore terrorists. While al-Shabaab target those, who they suspect are pro-government, and by their logic non-Muslims.

The Somali people are caught in the middle of this conflict. If you work for the government as a policeman or a soldier, al-Shabaab persecutes you. If you sympathize with al-Shabaab, the government persecutes you. The only “neutral” public workplace is Mogadishu airport, Mohamed’s sister reasoned.

Because of the insecure prospects, Mohamed and his family decided that he should try his luck at finding a job in Nairobi, Kenya. In East Leigh, a predominantly Somali neighborhood, Mohamed would be able to earn a living meanwhile practicing his English. At least this is what he envisioned.

White sand beaches and warm shallow waters
The next day, two days before my departure, Mohamed and a friend of the family accompanied me to the beach at the old seaport. Since my arrival, I had only smelled and viewed the sea from afar. It was a revelation to see the white sand beach that I remember from my childhood.

Mohamed quickly stripped down to his underwear and jumped into the wave foam. I was not wearing the proper attire for women, so I merely dipped my feet and legs in the warm shallow waters.

As a Somali woman, you are always under scrutiny. If your feet or your arms are showing, or even the slightest hair creeps out of your hijab, you will be told to cover up – even by strangers on the street. But then again, Osman’s wife, Nadia, was ordered to remove her niqab by a policeman on the street.

Before I parted with Mohamed I promised to meet with him in Nairobi. He was to leave for Kenya the following day, and I was to spend a few days there, before I left for Denmark.

To be continued…

My first visit to Africa – part 2

The first three days in Somalia I spent with my mother’s relatives in Mogadishu. Revisiting my birthplace for the first time in 22 years proved to be a chaotic and fearful encounter with gunshots, isolation and unsettling poverty.

(From the right) My host Nadia and her cousin Leila greeted me at Mogadishu International Airport with only their eyes visible.

Establishing contact with relatives in Mogadishu
Immediately after I had secured my flight to Somalia, the next step was to establish contact with my relatives, who had agreed to meet me in Mogadishu International airport.

I called the telephone number, my mother had acquired on my behalf, and introduced myself in broken Somaali. I have a habit of speaking Danish at home even as I hear my mother tongue spoken to me on a daily basis, so as a result I feel uneasy when I try to speak it.

I had jotted down a few expressions in Somaali and beside me was my cousin Fadumina’s housemaid Faduma. The conversation went well, until the women on the other end posed a question that I had not prepared for. She asked: But how will we recognize you?

Faduma read the panic in my eyes, as I was searching for words that would describe my appearance. She grabbed the phone and replied firmly, that I would call them from the airport upon landing. This 18-year-old savvy girl regularly travels to Mogadishu to visit her mother, which she supports from Kenya.

Airport highjack
In Mogadishu Airport, which from my window seat in the airplane looked like a concrete floor framed by sand dunes and the deep blue sea, locating and recognizing my unknown relatives proved to be a more urgent matter than the opposite situation.

Luckily, I received immediate help from a women, who rushed to my side as soon as I stepped foot in the arrival hall. This hijack was not welcomed, because I suspected that the women might be after something, whether that was my money, passport or other belongings.

She explained that it was her job to accommodate new arrivals, after she handed me a yellow form. She started ordering me around. Do this and do that. I did not appreciate her rushing me, so I said that I was perfectly capable of handling matters on my own and in my own time. She retired, only to return when I placed myself in the immigration control line.

The case of the missing 50 dollar bill
At the counter, the clerk demanded 50 dollars for a visa. I handed him a 100 dollar bill, and he gave a 50 dollar bill in return. The 40-something-year-old woman in a black hijab, now behind me, pushed me toward another counter, where clerks checked passports.

Somewhere in between the passport control, the security check and the exit, I lost sight of that 50 dollar bill. I discovered this much later. Somehow, someone, whether it was the pushy woman, the security guards or the clerks, got hold of my money. Damn!

At the exit, the busybody helper proved herself useful. She picked out a mobile phone and offered to call my relatives. It turned out that those, who had come for me in place of my uncle Osman, were being refused entry to the airport, so I had to go and meet with them outside.

Greeted by heat, gunshots and four friendly eyes
The Somali air was warm and windy as we stepped out on sandy pathways. In wintry Kenya, I had put on several layers of clothing to keep myself warm. Now all these clothes clung onto my body, while the wind grabbed my thin shaash (headscarf), leaving my neck exposed.

As we approached a gated exit point, I heard a sharp sound that I would come to hear many times over during my stay. The firing of a AK47. Ka ka ka. I froze for a second, and a security guard took notice. He said laughingly: “Have you never heard gunshots before?”. I had not. The shots were fired in the air in an attempt to scare off the large group of children lurking around the airport, looking to pickpocket passengers.

In between the crowd waiting on the other side of the exit, were two women dressed in black from head to toe. The only visible part were their eyes. They greeted me with kisses on my cheeks, and seemed geniunely happy and relieved to see me.

I took out my purse, because I wanted to tip the woman helper. As I took out five dollars, each of my hosts started pinching my arm as a discrete way of showing their discontent with the size of tip, I was about to give. We settled on four dollars instead.

Fear and AK47s in abundance
The two women were cousins. Nadia was married to my uncle Osman, and she and her cousin Leila were neighbours. They were both about 25 years old and very talkative. We sat crammed in several minibusses on the way to their home in Shibis district near the old sea port. The drive took about 45 minutes and they spoke throughout.

Meanwhile, I sat silently in fear and excitement. We slowly bumped along the crowded and potholed dirt road. The “conductors” would scream and shout as they tried to squeeze more passengers into the bus. The sound of car horns were deafening. The streets were full of people, animals, cars and military tanks.

Everywhere I looked, I saw men carrying AK47s. Some were soldiers in army uniforms, others policemen. I feared that one of these guns would go off any minute, and I felt like an easy target as I was seated in the back of the bus with my back and head exposed.

Finally, we reached my uncle Osman’s neighbourhood. I was struck by how destroyed the war had left Mogadishu. Ruined buildings, unpaved, rocky roads, waste dumped everywhere. The streets were populated with men in shirts and trousers, women in colourful hijabs and black niqabs, skinny livestock and shoeless children.

Room with windowGazing out of a bullet-holed window
Osman lives with his wife, their four small children and his ageing mother Aisha. Aisha is the second wife to my grandmother’s brother-in-law. The family lives in a house full of bullet holes, which is owned by Osman’s brother-in-law. Osman is jobless, and so the family depends on the money that their relatives in Europe and the U.S. send via Dahabshiil (a money transfer company).

The family placed me in a spacious room complete with new funiture and each day, I was served delicious and enourmous meals – despite their poverty. They warned me about venturing out on my own. They feared, that I would be recognized as a foreigner and taken hostage by either the government or Al-shabaab.

The first two days in Somalia were spent gazing out of the bullet-holed window in my room. I would press my face up against the net and listen to the whistling threes. I enjoyed the fresh cool air and spent hours staring at bypassers, while jotting down my experience of being in Somalia.

On the third day, my father’s relatives, my aunt and her young son came to visit me. We had never met before. Luckily, they vowed to show me their part of town, the Waberi district, near the airport. I was thrilled.

To be continued…

My first visit to Africa in two decades – part 1

During the past 22 years that I have lived in Denmark, the opportunity to visit Somalia, my native country, was hindered by my ignorance and fear. 2012 is the year I took the plunge.

Kenya en route to Somalia
I had been conjuring up courage to visit Somalia, my place of birth, for a whole year, before I pressed “buy” on my computer screen one late sunday evening, while browsing the internet for cheap flight tickets to Nairobi, Kenya. The first stop en route to Mogadishu, Somalia.

I intentionally packed my trip with various activities, because I regarded it as a “once-in-a-life-time” experience, but even more so because I wanted to free my mind from fear and doubt. If I kept myself busy, I would have less time to worry, my logic went.

For decades, Somalia’s war, conflicts and disasters had made headlines. The capital, Mogadishu was considered one of the most dangerous places on earth. But in the last year other stories about recovery, rebirth and renewed hope surfaced. I was curious about these changes and wanted to experience them first-hand.

First impressions of Africa
The first week was dedicated to Global Voices Online‘s Summit in Nairobi, Kenya. The second week with my Somali-Kenyan relatives, while arranging travel plans for Somalia. By the third, I would be in Mogadishu. Inshallah.

Upon arrival at Jomo Kenyatta International Airport, I was conveniently picked up by a driver in a black SUV and installed at a hotel in Westlands, a residential area for expatriates. It was a soft landing in Africa, where I enjoyed hot showers, free meals, stimulating conversations and lively gatherings with bloggers and activists from 30 countries around the world.

Cosmas Nganga and I at the 2012 Global Voices Citizen Media Summit in Nairobi, Kenya


The level of security in Nairobi struck me as extraordinary, as I underwent meticulous screening by security guards before entering hotels, malls and even restaurants. Locals would tell me, that the capital, and the whole nation for that matter, is at high alert because of the terror threat posed by al-Shabaab. A few days into my trip, attacks on churches in Garissa served as a chilling reminder of that threat.

Living amongst Somali-Kenyans in Nairobi
After the summit, my vibrant cousin Fadumina invited me to stay with her family of six at a private estate in Nairobi. I had not met her before, but supposedly she had held me in her arms, when I was just a baby back in Somalia.

Family therapist Fadumina and her husband who works for the Kenyan government, their four sons and step-daughter went out of their way to make me feel at home. The youngest son gave up his bed and room for me. Every couple of hours, a meal on a tray would be brought to my room, or a friendly face would knock on my door and ask me, how I was doing. I doing was great, but I was somewhat perplexed about their neighbourhood.

Cousin Fadumina and her son Abduhakim

This Somali-Kenyan family lived in a gated community inhabited by Somali upper middleclass families. A mosque would sound calls for prayers five times a day, and the children rarely went outside the estate. “We have everything, we need right here”, the 16-year-old son stated.

I do not usually wear the Muslim veil, but I learned that if I did not want to be mistaken for an Ethiopian and politely greeted with “Karibu” instead of the usual “Asaalamu Alaykum”, I had to cover up.

The kindness of strangers
During my stay in Nairobi, my favourite hang out was Java Coffee House due to the excellent WI-FI connection, but I also found it to be a good place to meet people and prepare my trip to Somalia as I encountered many well-connected Somali and Kenyan businessmen there.

One Somali-Kenyan businessman, educated in Norway, was kind enough to call up his friend at a travel agency and arrange a meeting for me at their office the following day. The office was located in Jamia Mosque, so once again I put on a veil over my head and added an abaya, a long black robe that covered my body. The Somali travel agent offered me return flight tickets at a price of 370$ and even sought to deliver them to my front door. I did not have time to shop around, so I gratefully accepted the offer.

In Denmark, my mother made great efforts to establish contact with the few relatives we have left in Mogadishu, since the thought of my travelling to Somali by myself worried her terribly. She arranged it so that my uncle Osman, which I have never met, would meet me at Mogadishu International Airport and take me to his family’s home in the Shibis district of Mogadishu – near the old seaport. I felt so relieved.

This was just for me
Thursday 12 July 2012 by midday, I would be on Somali soil once again. I have few, but vivid childhood memories of sandy beaches and palm trees. Of the heavy rains, where my siblings and I would fight over a spot under the roof-tiles, where the rain would drop on us and give a refreshing shower.

I hoped to see the house I was brought up in with my two older siblings, in Madinah, near the gold market. Also, I wished to see my grandmother’s (on my mother’s side) house, where my loose tooth came off with the help of a string and the slamming of a door, as well as my grandfather’s (on my father’s side) apartment near the airport, where we sat up on the airy rooftop. Here my grandfather would slip us a few shillings, which we instantly used to buy sweets.

As I am standing at the airport gate, waiting for the East African Safari Air Express flight to Mogadishu, these thoughts collide in my mind. I am hopeful and fearful at the same time. During boarding, the stewardess kindly asks, if I mind giving up my window seat to an elder lady in a wheelchair. I really did not want to miss out on any first glimpses of Somalia, so I politely declined. This was not the time for compromise. This was just for me.

To be continued…

Visiting Mathare, Nairobi Slum

On the 1st of July 2012, Global Voices teamed up with Map Kibera, a citizen media project which maps some of Africa’s largest slums in Nairobi, Kenya. This story is about Mathare, one of Nairobi’s shanty towns, which used to be a rock mine.

24-year-old Ronald “Roy” Odhiambo introduces himself as a mapper as he walks through piles of rubbish and human waste, past flimsy, make-shift shelters made of plywood and corrugated metal that comprise his neighbourhood; Mathare.

Like many of Mathare’s slum dwellers, Roy displays remarkable resilience. His father abandoned him, when he was just a small child. He lives in a tiny shack from which he risks eviction at any point. But he says, he would not want to see these squalid and crowded settlements demolished. Instead he calls for the government’s recognition and assistance.

The city lacks decent and affordable housing. Squatters or slum lords put up shacks on land that no one else wants to develop, like the abandoned quarry which Mathare is constructed on. Mathare was a blank spot on the map until December 2010, when Roy and a group of young people created the first digital map of their own community.

Mathare is a self-contained city with little official recognition

Mathare is bustling with butcher shops, shoe stores, pharmacies and restaurants, yet it operates with little official recognition or assistance. The roads are riddled with potholes and there is a lack of basic government services such as:

  • Waste management
  • Water supply network
  • Electricity

Roy is not a legal occupant of his home, although he pays rent – money that most likely end up in the pockets of corrupt politicians, who enjoy a good profit from a minimal investment.

There is a key difference between slums in Kenya and slums in Europe. In Denmark, people use the word “slum” to refer to deteriorating inner city tenements or abandoned rural district villages. But in Kenya and in other developing countries, “slums” are more often crowded, illegal settlements.

Children are everywhere in Mathare

Most slum dwellers are young like Roy. They are being socialized in this very hostile environment and some of them become very angry, so slums are also breeding grounds for anti-social behavior.

Roy keeps himself busy with projects like “Map Mathare” that aim to improve life in the community by providing credible and useful information. An example is the mapping and blogging about the need for sanitation systems. Roy documents how human waste spills into the water people drink and contaminates the food they eat.

Mathare is surrounded by rich people
Nairobi’s rich people hire slum dwellers as maids, security guards and drivers.
Not far away, workers pound, file and solder metal into furniture. Elsewhere, young men with cracked, dirt-caked hands sort garbage for recycling.

Slums in Nairobi are booming for reasons that many countries share, like poverty and war, which push people from the countryside into the cities. If nations don’t ensure affordable urban housing and deal with urban poverty, social unrest will increase worldwide.



Escape from Europe

The economic crisis and rising unemployment particularly among the youth has seen thousands of young Europeans fleeing to Africa in search of work and higher living standards.

Europe debt crisis word cloud - Copyright Vectorportal







Traditional global migration patterns are being challenged by the economic recession. Usually, people from poor countries flee to the West in search for jobs and opportunies. Now, unemployed young Europeans are beginning to migrate to the fast-growing economies of developing “Third World” countries.

A deep economic crisis in European countries characterized by overwhelming debts, rising unemployment, drastic spending cuts has sparked emigration among its frustrated youth.

According to International Business Times, thousands of young Portuguese have migrated to Mozambique in recent years – reportedly as many as 120.000 in 2011 alone. It is estimated, that 25 percent of the Portuguese youth (between the age of 16 and 25) are unemployed.

Portuguese in Mozambique

In contrast to the dire prospects in Portugal, the economy of Mozambique is growing. The former Portuguese colony saw a growth of nearly 8 percent in 2011. Once solely an agricultural economy, the country’s vast natural resources are now being exploited for development.

Despite the economic growth, most Mozambicans remain very poor. According to the World Bank, the average life expectancy is only 48 years and about half of the population live in poverty, the majority of these in rural areas.

Thus, if Mozambique is to truly establish and sustain a prosperous society – the kind that can attract large numbers of highly-skilled immigrants that want to stay for generations, it needs to spread the wealth more widely and ensure jobs for locals.

The exodus of the skilled and well-educated

In the past decades, we have witnessed the desperate measures of people in conflict areas, such as Somalia, in their attempt to flee violence and insecurity. Thousands of Somali refugees have put their lives at risk in order to escape to Yemen, Saudi Arabia or Europe.

Now, young, skilled and well-educated European citizens are willing to migrate to these same conflict areas and former colonies in search of jobs and opportunities. It is a historic role reversal.

In Denmark, unemployment rates are not quite as high as they are in Portugal, but still I find myself applying for jobs abroad and seriously considering whether working as a journalist in Somalia is a good career move or not. I am seriously considering to return to the country my family left behind 22 years ago – in search for work and opportunities.


International Business Times

BBC News

What business does Coca Cola have?

The Coca-Cola Company supports dictatorship and exploits workers in Swaziland, says the Danish NGO Africa Contact that has started an online protest. This makes me curious about Coke’s presence in Somalia. 

Coca-Cola has been in Africa since 1929 and is now present in all African countries. It is the continent’s largest employer with over 160 plant and nearly 70,000 employees. Its market share in Africa and the Middle East is 29 percent, which adds up to 9.1 billion liters of Coke a year. In comparison, Pepsi’s share is 15 percent.

However, Coke is accussed of supporting King Mswati III’s rule in Swaziland where it has its biggest operation. The multinational replies, it does not get involved with the politics of any country where it does business.

Nevertheless, democracy activists with Africa Contact, a Danish NGO working in Swaziland, urge the Danes to boycutt Coke. They claim that in addition to supporting the oppresive monarchy, Coke also exploit its sugar cane workers.

Recognition of Somaliland

In 2004, an $8.3 million Coca-Cola plant, United Bottling Company, opened in Mogadishu. Seven years later, Coca-Cola made a strategic relocation of the plant to Hargeisa, Somaliland. Supposedly, the Mogadishu franchise could not function, because of violence in the Somali capital.

Instead, Somaliland Beverage Industries owned by local businessman Ahmed Osman Guelleh was awarded a license to operate the franchise. It covers Somaliland and neighbouring semi-autonomous Puntland and boosts the economy in the two regions.

According to Financial Times, Ndema Rukandema, Coca-Cola’s franchise general manager for the Horn, Islands and Middle Africa, said that:

“Somaliland is a growing economy, made buoyant by the level of trading activity in the country. The stability that the country has enjoyed over the last several years is a positive indication of a conducive business environment.”

Coke leaves Mogadishu behind

When the Mogadishu bottling plant opened eight years ago, the 400-plus investors invited to finance the project were carefully chosen by clan. Each contributed a minimum of $300 to help start the company.

The project was a deliberate effort to create a feeling of communal ownership for the factory in a place where clan-based conflict has long been the rule. With the move from Mogadishu to Hargeisa, Coke seems to have lost faith in the Somali capital’s ability to maintain a profitable business environment.

Peter Kenworthy from Africa Contact says that:

“Coca-Cola is probably in Swaziland because it is a dictatorship that oppresses its unions and population. This allows wages to be kept low and unemployment high”

I wonder what business Coca-Cola has in Somalia and what business does a bottling plant have in a country that has scarce water resources.


Danish NGO Africa Contact

Financial Times

The Blog: Facts for working people

Bloomberg’s Businessweek

Youtube Video of the Mogadishu Plant

Soundslide: The (Western) story of Somalia

I recently discovered Charlie Chaplin’s speech in the movie “The Great Dictator” from 1940. Here, Chaplin talks about the terrors of Hitler’s nazi regime. Although, I do not mean to compare the situation in Somalia with the atrocities of the Second World War, I find the central message – giving power back to the people – inspiring in the light of what is happening in Somalia. The original speech is protected by copyright, so you will have to do with my vocals.

A Danish journalist researching war and conflict in the Horn of Africa