HornAfrik tells the untold stories

The difficulties and dangers in reporting from areas controlled by militias such as Al-Shabaab and where there is no government or embassy to turn to in a case of emergency is maybe best illustrated by the case of the TV and Radio station HornAfrik.

A private enterprise

HornAfrik was founded by three Canadian Somali refugees; Ahmed Adan, Mohamed Amin and Ali Sharmarke in 1999. Their story is documented by the UN in their 21st century television series.

In the documentary, Ahmed Adan states that many years of ongoing conflict in Somalia has created: “A situation, where no one is sure about their neighbours, families or communities.”

Ahmed Adan adds that news coverage by HornAfrik gives: “An opportunity to create environment, where we know about what is happening in every part of Mogadishu. (…) Who is killing whom and what is the basis for that.”

Voice of the people

HornAfrik provided ordinary people the opportunity to phone in and voice their opinion and explore ways to solve conflict. As the warlords realised the popularity of HornAfrik, they tried to take over the radio and TV station by force.

Ahmed Adan says that the station stood steadfast upon its principles: “Do not try to silence us, we will give you airtime, but the people will have to challenge you as well [by phoning in]. We are not a propaganda machine for any particular group or person”.

Subsequently, HornAfrik has experienced a number of attacks, censorship and has even been shut down. The dangers culminated in August 2007, when one founder, Ali Sharmarke, was murded along with presenter Mahad Ahmed Elmi.

Is any story worth dying for?

Many Somali journalists prefer to work undercover. At the very least, pseudonyms are used and more often than not, radio pieces are voiced over in studio to protect identities. The increasingly common practice of hiring local armed security guards to accompany reporters on assignments presents a risk of becoming a target.

When traveling with military or with one side in a conflict, there is a risk of being mistaken for a soldier or considered associated with military. Further more, when traveling with the military, you have to do what the military tells you to do.

HornAfrik is still operating to this day, but throughout the years the conflict has resulted in many media houses being closed down, and their journalists fleeing the country. Adan himself believes that his partner died for a worthy cause. He argues that Ali Sharwake was not “just a journalist, but a peacemaker”.



Who does the reporting?

Most of the time, most of what we read, hear and see from Somalia comes from Somalis. Local reporters work for all major news outlets, but they are usually not entitled to any of the protection offered to ‘regular’ staff members.  

Local reporters at risk

There are hundreds of journalists with varying degrees of skill scattered though out Somalia, practicing their craft under extremely dangerous circumstances. Major news agencies and media houses such as Reuters, AP, Al Jazeera, and BBC employ these workers.

In many cases, the risks of using foreign correspondents as opposed to local reporters are considered to high. This results in a preference for local reporters by international news organizations in Somalia.

The statistics show that it is mostly local reporters which are being attacked and wounded if not killed, arrested or threatened by the militia as well as the Transitional Somali Government.

Implications for coverage

Ever since the fall of former president Siad Barre’s government in 1991, there has been ongoing outbreaks of inter-clan violence throughout the south of Somalia and especially in Mogadishu. Puntland, the Horn of Africa, is a region with its own government.

Puntland supposedly provides a more secure environment in which journalists can report without the same danger that their colleagues encounter further south. And then there is Somaliland, which considers itself a separate country, despite not being recognized by either the African Union (AU) nor the United Nations (UN).

It is also supposedly safer to practice journalism in Somaliland than in other parts of the divided country, although local reporters here protect their position by shying away from reports on sovereignty and relations with Mogadishu.

Foreign journalists travel in flak jackets and armored vehicles 

Major African news outlets such as the South African Broadcasting Corporation (SABC) and Radio France Internationale are regularly taken on tours by African Union Mission in Somalia’s (Amisom) PR people.

The journalists travel in Casspirs (landmine-protected personnel carrier used by troops) through the parts of Mogadishu under the joint control of the African Union and Somalia’s Transitional Federal Government (TFG).

In grave contrast to the local reporters, these journalists are protected by soldiers, flak jackets and armored vehicles, but they only get a limited view of the situation. They also get to leave once their short assignment comes to an end.